Other Traumatic and Overuse Injuries
Stress Fractures of the Foot
A stress fracture is a small crack in a bone which occurs from an overuse injury. It commonly develops in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot. When the muscles of the foot are overworked, or stressed they are unable to absorb the stress and transfer it onto the bone, which cracks under the pressure.
Shin splints or medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is pain around the tibia or shinbone due to inflammation of the tendons, muscles and bone tissue. It occurs because of vigorous physical activity such as with exercise or sports.
Common causes of shin splints are overuse from repetitive sports activities or a sudden change in the level of physical activity. Flat feet or rigid foot arches and the use of inappropriate or worn-out footwear while exercising may increase your risk of developing shin splints. Runners, military recruits and dancers are at a higher risk of developing shin splints.
Achilles Tendon Bursitis
Achilles tendon bursitis or retrocalcaneal bursitis is a condition that commonly occurs in athletes. It is a painful condition caused by swelling of the bursa, a fluid-filled sac which is located at the back of the heel under the Achilles tendon. This retrocalcaneal bursa contains a lubricating fluid that acts as a cushion to reduce friction between muscle and bones. The Achilles tendon is the large tendon that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus) and is used when you walk, run and jump.
Causes of Achilles Tendon Bursitis
Achilles tendon bursitis is caused by overuse of the ankle which results in irritation and inflammation of the bursa. The common causes include overuse from too much walking, jumping or running. Achilles tendon bursitis can also occur in conjunction with Achilles tendinitis, inflammation of the Achilles tendon.